# Overview

The partitions package provides efficient vectorized code to enumerate solutions to various integer equations. For example, we might note that

[ 5 = 4+1 = 3+2 = 3+1+1 = 2+2+1 = 2+1+1+1 = 1+1+1+1+1](https://latex.codecogs.com/png.latex?%0A5%20%3D%204%2B1%20%3D%203%2B2%20%3D%203%2B1%2B1%20%3D%202%2B2%2B1%20%3D%202%2B1%2B1%2B1%20%3D%201%2B1%2B1%2B1%2B1%0A " 5 = 4+1 = 3+2 = 3+1+1 = 2+2+1 = 2+1+1+1 = 1+1+1+1+1 ")

and we might want to list all seven in a consistent format (note here that each sum is written in nonincreasing order, so is considered to be the same as ).

# Installation

You can install the released version of wedge from CRAN with:

# install.packages("partitions")  # uncomment this to install the package
library("partitions")

# The partitions package in use

To enumerate the partitions of 5:

parts(5)
#>
#> [1,] 5 4 3 3 2 2 1
#> [2,] 0 1 2 1 2 1 1
#> [3,] 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
#> [4,] 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
#> [5,] 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

(each column is padded with zeros). Of course, larger integers have many more partitions and in this case we can use summary():

summary(parts(16))
#>
#>  [1,] 16 15 14 14 13 13 13 12 12 12 ... 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
#>  [2,] 0  1  2  1  3  2  1  4  3  2  ... 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
#>  [3,] 0  0  0  1  0  1  1  0  1  2  ... 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
#>  [4,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  ... 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
#>  [5,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
#>  [6,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
#>  [7,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
#>  [8,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
#>  [9,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
#> [10,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
#> [11,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
#> [12,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
#> [13,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
#> [14,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
#> [15,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
#> [16,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Sometimes we want to find the unequal partitions (that is, partitions without repeats):

summary(diffparts(16))
#>
#> [1,] 16 15 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 ... 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6
#> [2,] 0  1  2  3  2  4  3  5  4  3  ... 5 4 6 6 5 5 4 5 5 4
#> [3,] 0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  1  2  ... 2 3 3 2 4 3 3 4 3 3
#> [4,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 2
#> [5,] 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

## Restricted partitions

Sometimes we have restrictions on the partition. For example, to enumerate the partitions of 9 into 5 parts we would use restrictedparts():

summary(restrictedparts(9,5))
#>
#> [1,] 9 8 7 6 5 7 6 5 4 5 ... 5 4 4 3 3 5 4 3 3 2
#> [2,] 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 ... 2 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 2
#> [3,] 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 ... 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2
#> [4,] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
#> [5,] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

and if we want the partitions of 9 into parts not exceeding 5 we would use the conjugate of this:

summary(conjugate(restrictedparts(9,5)))
#>
#>  [1,] 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 ... 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5
#>  [2,] 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 ... 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 4
#>  [3,] 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 ... 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0
#>  [4,] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 ... 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
#>  [5,] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 ... 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
#>  [6,] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#>  [7,] 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#>  [8,] 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#>  [9,] 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

## Block parts

Sometimes we have restrictions on each element of a partition and in this case we would use blockparts():

summary(blockparts(1:6,10))
#>
#> [1,] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 ... 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
#> [2,] 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 ... 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
#> [3,] 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 ... 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
#> [4,] 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 ... 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0
#> [5,] 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 ... 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4
#> [6,] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

which would show all solutions to , .

## Compositions

Above we considered and to be the same partition, but if these are considered to be distinct, we need the compositions, not partitions:

compositions(4)
#>
#> [1,] 4 1 2 1 3 1 2 1
#> [2,] 0 3 2 1 1 2 1 1
#> [3,] 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 1
#> [4,] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

## Set partitions

A set of 4 elements, WLOG , may be partitioned into subsets in a number of ways and these are enumerated with the setparts() function:

setparts(4)
#>
#> [1,] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1
#> [2,] 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 2
#> [3,] 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 3
#> [4,] 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 3 1 4

In the above, column 2 3 1 1 would correspond to the set partition .

## Multiset

Knuth deals with multisets (that is, a generalization of the concept of set, in which elements may appear more than once) and gives an algorithm for enumerating a multiset. His simplest example is the permutations of :

multiset(c(1,2,2,3))
#>
#> [1,] 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
#> [2,] 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 2
#> [3,] 2 3 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 1 2
#> [4,] 3 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1

It is possible to answer questions such as the permutations of the word “pepper”:

library("magrittr")

"pepper"    %>%
strsplit("") %>%
unlist        %>%
match(letters) %>%
multiset        %>%
apply(2,function(x){x %>% [(letters,.) %>% paste(collapse="")})
#>  [1] "eepppr" "eepprp" "eeprpp" "eerppp" "epeppr" "epeprp" "eperpp" "eppepr"
#>  [9] "epperp" "eppper" "epppre" "epprep" "epprpe" "eprepp" "eprpep" "eprppe"
#> [17] "ereppp" "erpepp" "erppep" "erpppe" "peeppr" "peeprp" "peerpp" "pepepr"
#> [25] "peperp" "pepper" "peppre" "peprep" "peprpe" "perepp" "perpep" "perppe"
#> [33] "ppeepr" "ppeerp" "ppeper" "ppepre" "pperep" "pperpe" "pppeer" "pppere"
#> [41] "pppree" "ppreep" "pprepe" "pprpee" "preepp" "prepep" "preppe" "prpeep"
#> [49] "prpepe" "prppee" "reeppp" "repepp" "reppep" "repppe" "rpeepp" "rpepep"
#> [57] "rpeppe" "rppeep" "rppepe" "rpppee"

# Further information

For more detail, see the package vignettes

vignette("partitionspaper")
vignette("setpartitions")
vignette("scrabble")