The **OTrecod** package gives access to a set of original functions dedicated to data fusion.

From two separate data sources with no overlapping units, sharing only a set of common variables X and a same target information not jointly observed in a same encoding from one data source to another (Y in A and Z in B), the functions **OT_outcome** and **OT_joint** aim at providing users a complete synthetic database where the missing information is available for every unit.

This recoding problem is solved using the optimal transportation theory which provides a map that transfers the joint distribution of the first target variable and X to the joint distribution of the second one and X, or inversely. Algorithms used in these two functions come from the references (1) and (2).

If the package **OTrecod** is not installed in their current R versions, users can install it by following the standard instruction:

Obviously, each time an R session is opened, the **OTrecod** library must be loaded with:

Moreover, the development version of **OTrecod** can be installed actually from GitHub with:

The available databases called **tab_test** and **simu_data** correspond to overlayed databases used as examples in the documentation of all the functions. Their structures can help users understanding the database structure expected as input argument of the functions **OT_outcome** and **OT_joint**. The first rows of the two overlayed data sources of **simu_data** are visualized as follows to inform about the expected database structure:

```
data(simu_data)
dim(simu_data)
[1] 700 8
simu_data[c(1:5,301:305),]
DB Yb1 Yb2 Gender Treatment Dosage Smoking Age
1 A [40-60[ NA Female Trt A Dos 3 YES 65.44273
2 A [20-40] NA Male <NA> Dos 2 NO 51.78596
3 A [40-60[ NA Female Placebo Dos 2 YES 49.10844
4 A [40-60[ NA Female Trt B Dos 4 <NA> 56.43524
5 A [40-60[ NA Female Trt A Dos 4 YES 44.77365
301 B <NA> 5 Female Placebo Dos 2 YES 44.58233
302 B <NA> 1 Female Trt B Dos 4 <NA> 65.23921
303 B <NA> 2 Female Placebo <NA> NO 51.64228
304 B <NA> 2 Female Trt A <NA> NO 50.15125
305 B <NA> 1 Female Trt B Dos 4 YES 61.53242
```

The first column called *DB* corresponds here to the database identifier (two data sources called here 1 and 2 with the data source 1 placed above the data source 2). The second column called *Yb1* is the target variable of the data source 1. The values of *Yb1* in the data source 2 are missing and will be predicted using an optimal transportation algorithm integrated in one of the two functions called **OT_outcome** and **OT_joint**. In the same way, the variable *Yb2* (third column) is the target variable of the data source 2 whose values in 1 are unknown. These missing values can also be predicted using **OT_outcome** and **OT_joint**.

The presence of these three variables is essential in any database dedicated to datafusion in the **OTrecod** package whatevever their names and whatever their orders in the database. The following columns correspond to shared variables of any type, complete or not. Note that continuous variables (like age in years) are not allowed with the **OT_joint** function.

Support functions are available in the package (**merge_dbs**, **imput_cov**) to assist user in this preparation.

Finally, the supplementary datasets **api29** and **api35** are simple datasets extracted from the API program (https://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pr/api.asp) to allow users to practice with convenient databases.

Among the available functions, the **OTrecod** package provides a set of support functions to assist users in each step of their data fusion projects.

The **merge_dbs** function is a pre-process data fusion function dedicated to the harmonization of two data sources. By default, variables (not target variables) with same labels are considered as shared between the two databases. The **merge_dbs** function detects potential discrepancies between the variables before merging by:

- firstly excluding variables with different labels from the first database to the second one and inversely.
- excluding a priori shared variables with different types.
- excluding a priori shared factors with different levels.

The actual form of the function does not propose automatic reconciliation actions to reintroduce the problematic variables but gives user enough information in output to do it by himself if necessary. The call of the **merge_dbs** function is actually:

```
merge_dbs = function(DB1, DB2, row_ID1 = NULL, row_ID2 = NULL, NAME_Y, NAME_Z, order_levels_Y = levels(DB1[, NAME_Y]), order_levels_Z = levels(DB2[, NAME_Z]), ordinal_DB1 = NULL, ordinal_DB2 = NULL,
impute = "NO", R_MICE = 5, NCP_FAMD = 3, seed_func = sample(1:1000000, 1))
```

The **merge_dbs** function notably provides in output an unique database, result of the overlayed of the two initial data sources, in the structure expected by the **OT_outcome** and **OT_joint** functions.

The **select_pred** function is a pre-process data fusion function dedicated to the selection of matching variables. This selection is essential when the initial set of shared variables is important, but also because the choice of predictors greatly influences the quality of the data fusion whatever the optimal transportation algorithms chosen a posteriori.

The call of the **select_pred** function is actually:

```
select_pred = function(databa,Y = NULL, Z = NULL, ID = 1, OUT = "Y", quanti = NULL, nominal = NULL, ordinal = NULL, logic = NULL,
convert_num = NULL, convert_clss = NULL, thresh_cat = 0.30, thresh_num = 0.70, thresh_Y = 0.20,
RF = TRUE, RF_ntree = 500, RF_condi = FALSE, RF_condi_thr = 0.20, RF_SEED = sample(1:1000000, 1))
```

The **verif_OT** function is a post-process data fusion function dedicated to the validation of the fusion. The function provides a set of tools to assess the quality of the optimal transportation recoding proposed by the algorithms to predict the missing information of the target variables in one or both datasources.

The call of the **verif_OT** function is actually:

`verif_OT = function(ot_out, group.clss = FALSE, ordinal = TRUE, stab.prob = FALSE, min.neigb = 1, R = 10, seed.stab = sample(1:1000000, 1))`

The **OTrecod** package provides two algorithms that use optimal transportation theory to solve recoding problems in data fusion contexts (see (1) and (2) for more details). Each algorithm is stored in one function and each function provides in output a unique and synthetic database where the two initial data sources are overlayed and the missing information from only one or both target variables are fully completed.

Each of the two alogorithms also proposed enrichments by relaxing the initial distributional constraints and adding regularization terms as described in (2).

The **OT_outcome** function can provide individual predictions of the incomplete target variables by considering the recoding problem involving only optimal transportation of outcomes (see (1) and (2) for more details).

The call of the **OT_outcome** function is:

```
OT_outcome = function(datab, index_DB_Y_Z = 1:3, quanti = NULL, nominal = NULL, ordinal = NULL,logic = NULL,
convert.num = NULL, convert.clss = NULL, FAMD.coord = "NO", FAMD.perc = 0.8,
dist.choice = "E", percent.knn = 1, maxrelax = 0, indiv.method = "sequential",
prox.dist = 0.30, solvR = "glpk", which.DB = "BOTH")
```

The **OT_joint** function can provide individual predictions of the incomplete target variables by considering the recoding problem involving optimal transportation of shared variables and outcomes (see(2) for more details).

The call of the **OT_joint** function is:

```
OT_joint = function(datab, index_DB_Y_Z = 1:3, nominal = NULL, ordinal = NULL,logic = NULL,
convert.num = NULL, convert.clss = NULL, dist.choice = "E", percent.knn = 1,
maxrelax = 0, lambda.reg = 0.0, prox.X = 0.10, solvR = "glpk", which.DB = "BOTH")
```

Gares V, Dimeglio C, Guernec G, Fantin F, Lepage B, Korosok MR, savy N (2019). On the use of optimal transportation theory to recode variables and application to database merging. The International Journal of Biostatistics.Volume 16, Issue 1, 20180106, eISSN 1557-4679.

Gares V, Omer J (2020). Regularized optimal transport of covariates and outcomes in data recoding. Journal of the American Statistical Association.